Hubify: Create Hub Sites in SharePoint Online to 5 Steps to Improve Usability Series

The new site hubs already need to be demistified.  Much of the way people speak about hub sites is already incorrect understanding.  Hub sites are not a new template, but are simply an existing Team or Communication site or taking an existing site and enabling it.  Many don’t realize the Hubs have rolled out.  This is not a new template, this is a feature that can be enabled via powershell with new association UI coming soon.  You can read more about the release and information on Hub sites by Mark Kashman.


Hubs can improve your global navigation, rollup activities and provide search scopes…

The easiest way of verifying you’re ready to go is by running in powershell:

This will lists hub sites or hub site information.

  1. Scoped Search – If you search within the hub site, it will automatically provide results from all the associated sites.
  2. Activity Webpart rollup of associated sites (This is a good way to determine if the hub was setup properly.)
  3. News Webpart rollup of News from associated site (Now you know another reason why I suggest communication site)
  4. Hub Navigation – Cross Navigation in the top nav bar to associated sites
  5. Consistent Logo and information across all associated sites
  6. Consistent look across all associated sites.  The simple “Change the look” option is what is used.

Personally I’ll be prescriptive for you and help you understand why.  While you can take an exisiting site and turn it into a hub site, it’s better to start with a new communication site… Why?  A new team site is a group and contains a lot more than you’d need for a hub.  You likely won’t need a planner, inbox, calendar, and other group items.  A communication site, focuses on the new modern interface with a simplified, but focused site.  An old classic site doesn’t have modern pages and also doesn’t have the new updated webparts.  While you can take an old site through the steps to get updated there are a few examples of reasons why.  Classic sites don’t have the new webparts like activity, and they don’t have the new pages which the new webparts should be listed on them.

1. Create a new Communication site.  Doesn’t matter which type, a Topic or Showcase is fine.

2. Add Activity Feed

3. Open powershell and add the Site as a hub.  There is currently no other way to do this other than in powershell for setting up the initial parent hub sites.


Note: You should not copy and paste powershell commands from the browser.  It’s often messed up due to the dashes not coming across properly.

4. Either Add News or make sure it is displayed.

5. On the child sites (If the UI is showing up) you can Click Settings (gear icon) > Site information > hub site association and select the desired hub.  You’ll only see the hubs you have permission to associate to. And then click Save. You will see the hub navigation appear above. The site itself will inherit the hub theme, and news and activities will begin to flow up to the hub site home page – along with a search crawl of content for any site associated to the hub site.In powershell associate a Site to the new hubsite.  Or you can do it in powershell.

Add-SPOHubSiteAssociation  -HubSite

NOTE: You can currently only add 50 Hubsites per tenant, but no maximum number of sites associated with any given hub.  A site can only have one parent hub site.

6. Gear/Settings – Change Look and Feel on parent – Once the hub site has been established, you’ll then want to further set it up and refine it for that organization –a preferred theme, so the hub site carries the right name and logo

7. Navigation – You should see the HubNav show up after some time.  Some may decide to call it sites or subsites, in a single label. You may need to move sites to subnavigation as you add sites. the preferred navigation elements, and the desired layout for news, sites and highlighted content. The navigation is NOT a webpart.  You won’t see how to configure that as it isn’t as intuitive.  Note there is a fix coming to add the nav to the hamburger menu when on smaller screens.

Note: Sites can only belong to one Hub. For example a site in Europe cannot belong to both the EU hub and the HR Hub.

8. Mobile – SharePoint hub sites have now been rolled out to 100% to all tenants worldwide in Office 365, including enterprise, education and government customers. Also, the SharePoint mobile apps have been updated in the production versions to fully support them

Troubleshooting: Once you’ve setup your associations it can take a couple of hours  or more after proper indexing to get the scoped search, navigation, and rollups working.  Don’t fret.  Search is used for rolling up News, Activities, and more.

Now that you’ve got lots of Hub Sites, you should plan on an Office 365 Home site… the parent of all HUBS.  We’ll talk about this one more later.

Key Powershell commands for setting up hubsites:

Enables the hub site feature on a site to make it a hub site.


Adds a new association between a site and a hub site.

Add-SPOHubSiteAssociation  -HubSite

Bonus Related Powershell:

Removes an association between a site and a hub site.

Sets the hub site information such as name, logo, and description.

Lists hub sites or hub site information.

Grants rights to users or security groups to access the hub site.  You can do normal permissions.

Revokes rights for specified principals to a hub site.

Disables the hub site feature on a site.

5 Simple Steps to Maximize SharePoint Usability – “Modernify” Your Classic SharePoint Sites

Have you been just living with the classic SharePoint UI and waiting for the right moment to change?  Maybe you have switched your site, but many of the others you are using have been switched.  The Modern UI/UX has been out for some time, but it’s confusing where some lists are classic and others modern… Let’s stop the madness…  It’s time.  It’s taken more than a year to be embraced fully, and has gone through a TON of A/B testing by Microsoft by simply allowing users to willy nilly turn it on for themselves.  There are a half dozen ways users can turn on a list or turn off a list, but imagine you’re now ready to go.  Let’s do it!


Why Stay Classic?

1. More flexibility in master pages and custom look and feel including custom UI/UX

2. Embedding of custom actions in the ribbon of your SharePoint site and alternate CSS on publishing sites.

3. Content in Modern webparts is not reusable

Why Go Modern?

1. Modern SharePoint Development in SharePoint Framework – SPFx

2. Drag and Drop Documents with the cool modern libraries

3. Drag and Drop Metadata and groupings

4. Pinning and the new Property and search tabs

Note: Personally I’m recommending if you are planning on sticking with a simple out of the box experience for your sites that are ok with basic look and feel, you should switch to Modern.  As well, Ideally if you are going to change.  You should change for everything except for maybe your Intranet or Publishing type sites.

During an upgrade or migration where you’re moving out of custom look and feel into something built on Modern UI, you shouldn’t be worried, but if the site already looks really custom and is already in O365 you should be more cautious.


Modernify SharePoint



Enable Modern Lists for all Lists and Libraries in the UI.




Using Powershell Enable Modern Lists

If you want to enable it on specific Sites, you can use powershell.  Build your own powershell based on the instructions include a sample of doing it for one, but you can loop through or pull from a list.   “Switch the default experience for lists or document libraries from new or classic”



If you are having problems with the list experience not showing the way it should, you can clear your cookies which may be forcing the classic experience otherwise indicates to use the new experience UI. The article states to clear all cookies, but I found I only needed to clear the cookies related to my SharePoint site. I was not able to figure out which cookie specifically needs to be cleared.  The name of the cookie is “spInu” with a value of 0. Deleting that one will restore the modern UI without having to clear all cookies.  As an example if it works in one browser and not the other… this could be why.


More info on why.


Now let’s make the pages Modern

First your lists should be made modern using either the powershell or admin UI to switch the list experience.

The Site Pages Library must be in the “New Experience” then create a “new page,” make it the way you want it like a Communication Site or Team site with the Hero Webpart or Activity Web part then select the page and from the top menu options click on the 3 dots and select “Make homepage”.

First Release: First look at MDM Mobile Device Management in Office 365

Office 365 Mobile Device Management is now available for early adopters and those tenants who have elected to opt into the First Release Program. I can’t tell you when you’ll get these features or if they are already released if you’re not already in the First release program. I’m not telling you to move up your tenant, but if you want to tell if you are or if you want to change, here you go:

How do I join First Release or get in Office 365 preview?

First Release program simply go to Admin > Service Settings > Update then switch it to “On”

This is not a beta program, just an early preview of new features. Note First Release in Office 365 primarily relates to SharePoint Online and Exchange Online.

There are other programs to get access to early bits such as the client or on premises servers:

Office 2016 Preview – For office 2016 client

Office Preview Programs – program span across the full family of Microsoft Office client, server and cloud services

Getting Started with Office 365 Mobile Device Management

You can tell if you have MDM features by going to the Office 365 Admin and selecting Mobile Devices in the left hand navigation. Click Get Started to kick it off.

Admin > Mobile Devices > Mobile Device Management

Looks like a simple wizard to get started, but in my experience this is something you need to do before you get started.

Check back in a few hours!?? After 15 minutes I checked and my hello kitty Office 365 Admin screen looked like this.

There are some recommendations from Microsoft on what to do next. You’ve completed Step 1 which didn’t do anything yet other than give you the ability to Manage them. Seems to me like EVERYONE should do that first step.

Step 2. Click “Manage Settings” on Mobile Device Management for Office 365


Detailed Steps for these are here: Manage Mobile Devices in Office 365

Required Steps: Next you can configure domains for MDM, then you can setup the Apple Push Notifications Certificate to manage the iPhone and iPads to connect. (Second isn’t required unless you’re using iOS devices)

Recommended Steps: Then consider Multifactor Auth options and security policies.



Secure and manage the mobile devices that connect to my organization?

Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets play a big part in helping people get their work done. Mobile Device Management for Office 365 helps make sure that your organization’s information is protected on these devices. Learn more 

How to set up Mobile Device Management for Office 365
How to create policies to secure device access 


Blacklist or Whitelist Users and Devices for Exchange based on Security Groups


Ok. Here’s the Richness of Options:

Mobile Device Security Policy

Then there are these additional options

The default settings are really pretty good. If you simply agree you’ll get this… Seriously if this is your first time, I suggest you not go past this, and at first only do this for a specific security group so you can tell you setup the APNs properly. There’s a lot of good reasons to roll this out slowly. Imagine how upset you’d be if you couldn’t get your email. These kinds of rollouts really should be connected with announcements to affected users AHEAD of TIME.

Who is SharePoint

Who’s Who in the SharePoint and Office 365 World at Microsoft HQ

There’s been some serious shuffling that has gone on since we were last looking at the who’s who of the SharePoint world at Microsoft.  Over the years many have gotten familiar with Jeff Teper as our one neck to choke in the SharePoint world.  Jeff Teper moved on back in June of this past year with little fanfare in the SharePoint community.  In fact I was reading Mary Jo Foley’s article about the structure at MS since the move and it wasn’t even tweeted or shared on facebook.  So it’s possible that this is not widely known.  When I was at the Office 365 event in San Diego a few weeks ago, I was talking with Bill Baer and Sonya about some of the restructuring and I was blown away with the changes.  It shows a united world with serious focus on Office 365 and on OneDrive.

I didn’t get a chance to salute to Jeff, so I wanted to start with his send off and while Satya Nadella isn’t directly involved in SharePoint/OneDrive, you must know who he is and plan to hear him speak at Ignite.  Surprises me that there are still some folks out there who don’t yet recognize his name, so this is another chance.

This list is mostly to help you understand who is out there fighting for you.  Go up and thank them sometime.  If you’re going to Ignite or SPTechcon or other major SharePoint or Office 365 summits, say hi.

Microsoft reorgs its Office business to focus on four new investment areas

(Note: This isn’t designed to be everyone.  There are tons of people and entire groups I’m missing, this is just a handful of the visible ones.) 


SharePoint and Office 365 People you should know:


Jeff Teper – previously the Corporate VP of SharePoint since 1999 (headed up the original PKM team and launched Tahoe the V1… SharePoint Portal Server 2001!).  We sometimes called him the Father or Grandfather of SharePoint.  Some may say the godfather, but that role is taken, wink, wink.  Jeff Teper is now head of corporate strategy to work in areas such as acquisitions and development reporting directly to the CFO of MS. (Photo from LinkedIn)

– Led SharePoint from inception to the leader in portals, collaboration, and content management with $2B+ in annual revenues, 150M+ users, and an ecosystem of 700K+ developers
– Managed 1000+ person, globally distributed engineering team
– Led successful $1B+ acquisitions of FAST, the leader in enterprise search, and Yammer, the leader in enterprise social networking
– Led Corporate Strategy team supporting new Microsoft CEO and CFO on cloud and mobile-first strategies and acquisitions



Satya Nadella – Microsoft CEO, Hired by Jeff Teper! “Teper said he was the one who hired Nadella to work at Microsoft. Nadella had been working at Sun Microsystems Inc., and Teper’s team was looking for someone to help persuade developers to move from Sun’s server operating system to Windows NT, he said.”  He will be at Ignite and keynoting the event.  Satya Nadella leads Microsoft’s transformation to a productivity and platform company in the cloud-first, mobile-first world. Prior to becoming CEO, he held leadership roles in both enterprise and consumer businesses across the company. (Photo MS Ignite)



Chris Jones, Corporate Vice President, OneDrive and SharePoint, Microsoft

Chris Jones joined Microsoft in 1991 and currently leads the engineering team for OneDrive, SharePoint Online, and SharePoint Servers. Prior to his current role, he led the engineering for, OneDrive, Microsoft account, and Messenger; and he served for several years as Vice President in both program management and engineering in the Windows Division.


Dave Campbell – Chief Technology Officer, Cloud & Enterprise, Microsoft

Dave Campbell helps formulate, implement and communicate Microsoft’s cloud strategy. Over the last five years he has focused on the Azure platform and Microsoft’s Big Data strategy

(Photo from LinkedIn)


Julia White – General Manager : Microsoft Office Division, Technical Marketing. Responsibilities include Office 365, Office, Exchange, SharePoint, Developer and IT Pro audience marketing.

(Photo from Facebook Ignite ad)

(Photo from LinkedIn)


Jared Spataro – General Manager, Microsoft Office



Arpan Shah – Office 365 Technical Product Management group at Microsoft

Sonya Koptyev

Sonya Koptyev – Senior Product Marketing Manager at Microsoft (Apps for Office cloud app model)


Jeremy Thake – Senior Product Marketing Manager in the Office 365 (focused on Developers)

(Photo from his twitter profile)


Chris Johnson

Chris Johnson – Group Product Marketing Manager at Microsoft

(Linkedin photo)

Michal Gideoni

Michal Gideoni – Director, Product Management at Microsoft

(Photo from LinkedIn)


Bill Baer – Senior Technical Product Manager at Microsoft Corporation

(SP24 profile photo)

Olaf Hubel

Olaf Hubble – Senior Technical Product Marketing Office 365 at Microsoft

(LinkedIn photo)

Mark Kashman

Mark Kashman – Senior Product Manager at Microsoft

(Photo via LinkedIn)


Bonus: For those who remember Tom… He’s not far!


Tom Rizzo – Director of Skype and Skype for Business (formerly known as Lync)

SharePoint Outer Limits: SharePoint 2013 & Office 365 File Library List Limits

A Spooky Halloween Post for you…

Office 365 really has made some impact to how we look at setting limits to support larger files, more sites, larger videos, and more file types.   I felt it was important to revisit these classic file and folder restrictions. There appear to be so many random blog posts, KB articles, and TechNet articles, and MSDN articles. I decided I’d try to put the data all in one place.  Note this is subject to change, so be sure to verify anything you read here.

I highly recommend architects start planning for a minimum of 5GB My Sites and Sky Drive Pro.  We really need to start planning for 25GB SkyDrive Pro on-premises to compete with the improvements in the online services in order to compete with the online service.  If you’re going to do this… seriously consider external storage systems.  There are some great very cheap solutions.

Office 365 limits to SharePoint Online & SkyDrive Pro:

  • Single file upload: 2 GB and expanded support for a broader range of file types. (increased file upload limit from 250MB and is by default 50MB on-premises often increased by admins to 100 or 200MB)
  • # of total Site collections per tenant: 10,000 and list lookup threshold to 12 lookups. (was 3,000)
  • File retention: 90 day recycle bin retention duration with turning versioning on by default for new SkyDrive Pro libraries. (by default 30 days on-premises with versioning off)


“We just significantly increased the default SkyDrive Pro storage per user, from 7 GB to 25 GB, with the ability to further increase to 50 GB or 100 GB. To complement this, we’re also increasing the per file upload limit, from 250 MB to 2 GB. Users will now be able to upload and share larger files like CAD drawings, video files, larger project documents and more-both to their personal SkyDrive Pro and to team site document libraries. And it is possible to upload more than one file at a time via drag and drop, the standard file upload dialog box or via SkyDrive Pro Sync for Windows.”

SharePoint Online Blocked File Types

Blocked Files Updated:

SharePoint Online now accepts a broader range of file types, specifically .exe and .dll. See the list below.

Blocked file types for SharePoint Online Note this is a much smaller list than on-premises listed at the bottom of this post.

FYI: The updated 10/31/2013 reduced list of blocked file types cannot be changed for a SharePoint Online site.

.ashx ASP.NET Web handler file. Web handlers are software modules that handle raw HTTP requests received by ASP.NET.
.asmx ASP.NET Web Services source file
.asp Active Server Pages
.aspq Active Server Pages
.axd ASP.NET source file
.cshtm ASP.NET web page
.chtml ASP.NET web page
.json JavaScript Object Notation file
.rem Blackberry Encrypted Data file
.shtm HTML file that contains server-side directives
.shtml HTML file that contains server-side directives
.soap Simple Object Access Protocol file
.stm HTML file that contains server-side directives
.svc Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) service file
.vbhtm ASP.NET Razor web page
.vbhtml ASP.NET Razor web page
.xamlx Visual Studio Workflow service file
Storage per user (contributes to total storage base of tenant) 500 megabytes (MB) per subscribed user.
Site collection quota limit Up to 100 GB per site collection.SharePoint admins can set storage limits for site collections and sites. The minimum storage allocation per site collection is 24MB.
Total available tenant storage 10 GB + 500 MB per user.For example, if you have 10 users, the base storage allocation is 15 GB (10 GB + 500 MB * 10 users).Up to a maximum of 100 GB. Additional storage for Small Business plans is not yet available.
Personal site storage 25 GB per user, as soon as provisioned.This amount is counted separately, and does not add to or subtract from the overall storage allocation for a tenant. Personal site storage applies to a user’s SkyDrive Pro library and personal newsfeed. For more information, see Additional information about SkyDrive Pro limits.
Public Website storage default 5 GBA SharePoint admin can allocate up to 100 GB (the limit for a site collection).
File upload limit 2 GB per file.
Number of users 1 – 25 users
Maximum number of external users invitees Up to 500 unique external users in the directory (external users who have accepted sharing invitations).What is an external user?

“When reviewing the information on the previous table, remember that the base storage limits for Office 365 for Small Business (10 GB + 500 MB per subscribed user) will affect some of these values. For example, although SharePoint Online for Small Business imposes a limit of 100 GB per site collection, your particular tenant might not have enough storage available to contain a site collection of 100 GB.”

Site, Folder and File Name Restrictions

KB Article 905231 I’ve added some additional symbols and recommendations.

  • Site Names
    • Not Allowed: | # { } % & <TAB>” ~ + / : * ? ” < >
    • Avoid starting sites with an underscore (_) or with the period character.
    • Site names can cause confusion and corruption if they have periods, apostrophes or commas
    • They should not have consecutive periods or end with a period.
      • You cannot use the period character at the end of a site name
    • Many other symbols are not recommended such as $^()-_=+[]`! (other international currency symbols and international symbols should be avoided in site names, but some are more acceptable in file names. Ascii is preferred when possible.
  • Folder Names and File Names
    • Do not use: ” # % & * : < > ? / { | } ~
    • File names cannot be longer than 128 characters
    • Do not use the period character consecutively in the middle of a file name.  For example, “” is invalid.
    • You cannot use the period character at the end of a file name
    • You cannot start a file name with the period character
    • Many other symbols are not recommended such as $^()-_=+[]`! (other international currency symbols and international symbols should be avoided in site names, but some are more acceptable in file names. Ascii is preferred when possible.
  • In addition, file names and folder names may not end with: (Many of these are international symbols)
    • .files, _files , -Dateien , _fichiers , _bestanden , _file ,_archivos ,-filer,_tiedostot ,_pliki ,_soubory ,_elemei , _arquivos ,_dosyalar ,_datoteke ,_fitxers,_fails ,_bylos ,_fajlovi,_fitxategiak

Examples of Legal File Names

  • AllItems.docx
  • Dept_1234.doc
  • Long.Name.With.Dots.txt

Examples of Illegal Site Names

  • Intranet/sites/People & Process
  • Intranet/sites/My Math is 10% Here
  • Intranet/sites/_foobar
  • Intranet/sites/#FAIL
  • Intranet/sites/Jimmy+Bean

Examples of illegal file names:

  • HailCæsar.wav.
  • Wow…BadStuff.txt
  • 揵.htm
  • Roger&Hamerstein.mp3
  • WhatsUp?.doc

Note that windows may let you save filenames that SharePoint won’t support uploading. Sometimes you’re even allowed to upload it through the explorer view, and it will block you from the web interface.  If a file that’s uploaded prior to the file extension being blocked you will be unable to download the file.

File and Folder name lengths

  • Link list items are restricted to 256 characters and will truncate links to SharePoint documents (or anything else) with lengths longer than this.
  • When storing files the structure and files (entire path including sites, folders, and file name) cannot add up to more than 260 characters or they will see an error message or form validation error with the explanation around the URL length.

When using multi file upload interface: Make sure the total size of all your files is not greater than the upload limit set for your web application.

NOTE: This is now different for SharePoint 2013/SharePoint Online.  Now you can drag and drop many files over the limit.  The interface may time out, and a page refresh should reflect what was upgraded.  A failure may or may not display depending on the interface timeout.

File Size Maximums

Max File Size Default: 50MB Maximum setting: 2GB (per file NOTE: 2GB is the new SkyDrive Pro limit)

List data: Max of 8kb of data

200 MB is what I recommend for most typical environments as a great compromise, but don’t recommend more than 500MB for most environments without External or Remote Blob storage.

(If you set it to 0 or 2047 MB, it will be the same as 2GB file.) Realistically a few hundred MB is really all you can get, unless you have fast LAN access. MS is now supporting 2GB.  Be sure to do some testing before setting this as the limit in your on-premises environment.

NOTE: I understand that even if you use RBS or Remote Blob Storage and most third parties, you still can’t support files over 2GB, but you’ll have to check with your vendor.


Each Web Application contains a list of blocked file types that is based on file name extensions. For example, you can block files that have the .exe extension. By default, many file types are blocked, including file types that are treated as executable by Internet Explorer. Files, whose names include braces, (for example, filename.{doc}) are also blocked by default.

Blocked File Types SharePoint 2013

Here are a few file types I typically remove from the blocked file list below: URL, LNK, CHM, HLP (if you want you can make the blocked list consistent with the online list)

I often add .MP3, PST, OST, and sometimes MP4. Some will add .ZIP, but I recommend allowing the .zip, arj, rar, etc… file as a common mechanism for compressing lots of files into a single file.

On-Premises SharePoint 2013 Blocked File Types

File name extension File type
.ade Microsoft Access project extension
.adp Microsoft Access project
.app Application file
.asa ASP declarations file
.ashx ASP.NET Web handler file. Web handlers are software modules that handle raw HTTP requests received by ASP.NET.
.asmx ASP.NET Web Services source file
.asp Active Server Pages
.bas Microsoft Visual Basic class module
.bat Batch file
.cdx Compound index
.cer Certificate file
.chm Compiled HTML Help file
.class Java class file
.cmd Windows NT command script
.com Microsoft MS-DOS program
.config Configuration file
.cpl Control Panel extension
.crt Security certificate
.csh Script file
.dll Windows dynamic-link library
.exe Program
.fxp Microsoft Visual FoxPro compiled program
.hlp Help file
.hta HTML program
.htr Script file
.htw HTML document
.ida Internet Information Services file
.idc Internet database connector file
.idq Internet data query file
.ins Internet Naming Service
.isp Internet Communication settings
.its Internet Document Set file
.jse JScript Encoded script file
.ksh Korn Shell script file
.lnk Shortcut
.mad Shortcut
.maf Shortcut
.mag Shortcut
.mam Shortcut
.maq Shortcut
.mar Shortcut
.mas Microsoft Access stored procedure
.mat Shortcut
.mau Shortcut
.mav Shortcut
.maw Shortcut
.mda Microsoft Access add-in program
.mdb Microsoft Access program
.mde Microsoft Access MDE database
.mdt Microsoft Access data file
.mdw Microsoft Access workgroup
.mdz Microsoft Access wizard program
.msc Microsoft Common Console document
.msh Microsoft Agent script helper
.msh1 Microsoft Agent script helper
.msh1xml Microsoft Agent script helper
.msh2 Microsoft Agent script helper
.msh2xml Microsoft Agent script helper
.mshxml Microsoft Agent script helper
.msi Windows Installer package
.msp Windows Installer update package file
.mst Visual Test source files
.ops Microsoft Office profile settings file
.pcd Photo CD image or Microsoft Visual Test compiled script
.pif Shortcut to MS-DOS program
.prf System file
.prg Program source file
.printer Printer file
.pst Microsoft Outlook personal folder file
.reg Registration entries
.rem ACT! database maintenance file
.scf Windows Explorer command file
.scr Screen saver
.sct Script file
.shb Windows shortcut
.shs Shell Scrap object
.shtm HTML file that contains server-side directives
.shtml HTML file that contains server-side directives
.soap Simple Object Access Protocol file
.stm HTML file that contains server-side directives
.url Uniform Resource Locator (Internet shortcut)
.vb Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition file
.vbe VBScript Encoded Script file
.vbs VBScript file
.ws Windows Script file
.wsc Windows Script Component
.wsf Windows Script file
.wsh Windows Script Host settings file